Elective surgery occurs when the patient has the time to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of the procedure and identify what is most appropriate for their treatment.
The substance of this type of surgical intervention, unlike urgent or emergency surgery, is that the best time to perform it can be coordinated between doctor and patient.
These are performed by medical indication (cataract procedures, application of orthopedic prostheses, among many others) or by own decision (cosmetic surgeries).
One of the main advantages of this type of surgery is that it allows the recommended fasting period to be set and enables the patient to be conditioned so that the procedure is carried out in optimal clinical conditions (for example, high blood pressure control, medication suspension, etc.)
Emergency surgery is one that is performed within the first 24 hours after the medical diagnosis. Usually responds to a health problem that occurs suddenly and requires assistance within a reasonable period of time.
Examples: appendicitis, strangulated hernia, ectopic pregnancy, torsion of the ovary, or testicles, among others.
Emergency surgery is one that occurs when there is a critical situation of obvious danger to the patient’s life and requires immediate action within the first 30 minutes. For this type of surgery, there are no schedules; the patient arrives and, depending on its severity, stabilizes, and is immediately transferred to the operating room.
Examples: placental abruption in pregnant women, cesarean section for fetal bradycardia, traumatic arterial injury, among others.
Since emergency surgeries are performed with little or no advance planning, it is not possible to guide the recommended fasting period, with the consequent increase in risks and complications resulting in the event of aspiration of gastric contents during anesthetic induction, the procedure, or immediate postoperative.